There are several ways of welding, the most common ones are welding by gas or by electricity, and by arc or submerged in the molten state.
Others, however, are less well-known yet have been in use for generations. Electron Beam Welding is one of them. It’s a sort of welding that joins metals with electrons rather than photons or heat.
The result is a strong, clean weld with excellent corrosion resistance. Moreover, it is also known as electron beam soldering and electron beam brazing.
If we talk about its use, the automotive industry uses electron beam welding for a variety of metals such as carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium.
The process involves generating an arc between two electrodes and directing a powerful stream of electrons at the area of contact. This arc melts and fuses the metal together.
If you are among those who want to know more about the disadvantages of electron beam welding, its equipment, and the overall process, this article is for you.
EBW (Electron Beam Welding) Process
The EBW process starts with the removal of any debris and oxidation on the surface of the part before placing it in the melting chamber.
After heating the wire, it melts into the molten pool that the electron beam has generated. The molten pool cools until it solidifies and forms the weld nugget.
You can determine the requirement of heat input for welding by the welding current. The use of welding current is to provide a temperature of about 3200 to 4500 degrees Fahrenheit.
If you want to prevent the formation of oxides that cause electrical shorting, you have to limit the Welding current.
EBW equipment is the most important part of the electron beam welding process. Without these, it will not work properly. An EBW setup consists of the following major equipment:
a) Electron gun
An electron gun is a device for producing an intense beam of electrons for welding and other purposes. Many industrial processes and manufacturing techniques, including electron beam melting, electron beam welding, and others use electron guns.
b) Power supply
The main characteristic of the power supply for metal welding is the high frequency with low voltage and high current. It can weld mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum alloys.
c) Vacuum Chamber
The vacuum chamber produces an electron beam which helps you in the welding process The vacuum chamber serves as a container, and for melting and fusing the metal objects together, we use an electron beam inside the chamber.
d) Workpiece Holding Device
For holding workpieces while welding them we use workpiece holding devices . In general, the holding device can be divided into two main categories: clamping type, and non-clumping type.
A clamping type workpiece holding device is usually suitable for high current, high-speed welding. Non-clamping type workpiece holding device is often used for lower current, lower speed welding.
Disadvantages of EBW:
- It is too slow.
- Requires higher equipment costs.
- It needs skilled manpower.
- Takes much time to carry out the welding process.